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Corpus of Old Solar

Contents

Most fortunately, unlike the other languages of the Out of the Silent Planet trilogy, the attested corpus of Old Solar is large enough to give us a decent grasp of the basics of its grammar, although it is nowhere near large enough for us to hope to actually be able to say anything useful.

Note: where the source has a macron (straight line) above a vowel, this site has a circumflex, as in hrû or hmân.

Words

*ah
\’ah\1 ? : apparently a feminine suffix; used in Baru’ah and Yatsurah
[origin unknown]
ahihra
\’a · hê · h · ra\ interj. : meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Arbol hru
\’ar · bôl  h · ru\ n. : literally “Sun’s blood”, the Old Solar name for gold
[Old Solar Arbol + hrû]
*cerd
\’cerd\2 n., pl. *cerdi (\· ê\): “field” (as in *Arbol-ef-Cordi, “The Fields of Arbol”)
pos. *cord \’côrd\, pl. cordi \· ê\
[origin unknown]
crah
\’cra · h\ n. : the final part of a hressa poem; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
ef
\’ef\ def. ar. : “the”
[origin unknown]
eldil
\’el · dêl\ n., pl. eldila (\·· a\) : an angel-like being; actual meaning unknown3
[origin unknown]
*glund
\’glund\ adj. : meaning unknown; attested in Glundandra
[origin unknown]
handra
\’han · dra\ n. : “planet” or “world”, also “earth”, “dirt”, “soil”4
[origin unknown]
handramit
\’han · dra · mêt\ n. : one of the trench-like valleys of Malacandra; may literally mean “low earth”
[Old Solar handra + *mit]
*har
\’har\ adj. : may mean “high” (in terms of height); attested in harandra
[origin unknown]
harandra
\’har · an · dra\ n. : the highlands of Malacandra; may literally mean “high earth”
[Old Solar *har + handra]
*harandramar
\’har · an · dra · mar\ n. : “hill”
pos. harendrimar \’har · en · drê · mar\
[Old Solar harandra + *mar]
hlab
\’h · lab\5 n. : apparently, “language”
[origin unknown]
hlutheline
\’h · lu · þe · lê · ne\ v. : “to long” or “to yearn”, but not synonymous with wondelone; may be conjugated into the third-person singular
[origin unknown]
hmân
\’h · mân\ n., pl. hmâna (\·· a\) : not a word per se, it is how the hrossa pronounce the English word “man”
[English man]
hnakra
\’h · na · kra\ n., pl. hnéraki (\h · ’ne · ra · kê\) : one of a species of monstrous creatures inhabiting the lakes of Malacandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
hnakrapunt
\’h · na · kra · punt\ n. : “hnakra slayer”
[Old Solar hnakra + *punt]
hnau
\’h · now\ n., pl. hnau : a sentient being; actual meaning unknown
adj. hnau
[origin unknown]
honodraskrud
\’hô · nô · drask · rud\ n. : a pinkish-white weed that grows in the handramita of Malacandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
*hressn
\’h · resn\ n., pl. hressni (\·· nê\) : a female hross; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
hross
\’h · rôs\ n., pl. hrossa (\·· a\) : one of the race of the hrossa; actual meaning unknown
adj. *hress \’h · res\, pl. hressa \·· a\
[origin unknown]
hrû
\’h · rû\ n. : “blood”
pos. hru \’h · ru\
[origin unknown]
*lurga
\’lur · ga\ adj. : meaning unknown; attested in Lurga
[origin unknown]
*m6
\’m\ ? : meaning unknown; may be attested in Meldilorn
[origin unknown]
*mal
\’mal\ n.? : possibly “lord” or “king” (see Maleldil)
[origin unknown]
*malac
\’ma · lac\ adj. : meaning unknown; attested in Malacandra
[origin unknown]
*mit
\’mêt\ adj. : may mean “low” (in terms of height); attested in handramit
[origin unknown]
*orn
\’ôrn\ ? : meaning unknown; may be attested in Meldilorn
[origin unknown]
oyarsa
\’ô · yar · sa\ n., pl. oyéresu (\ô · ’ye · re · su\) : a member of the highest rank of eldila; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
*perel
\’per · el\ n. : meaning unknown; attested in Perelandra
[origin unknown]
*punt
\’punt\ n. : “slayer”; attested in hnakrapunt
[origin unknown]
*ra
\’ra\ ? : meaning unknown; may occur in the personal name Hnohra
[origin unknown]
tai
\’tî\ n. : “life”
[origin unknown]
thulc
\’þulc\ adj. : “silent”
[origin unknown]
urendi
\’ur · end · ê\ v. : meaning unknown; is apparently conjugated into the third-person singular, possibly with a second-person singular direct object also marked
[origin unknown]
wondelone
\’wônd · el · ô · ne\ v. : “to long” or “to yearn”, but not synonymous with hlutheline; may be conjugated into the third-person singular
[origin unknown]

Proper Nouns

Abhalljin
\’abh · al · dzhên\ pl. n. : an island on Perelandra; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Aphallin
\’aph · al · · ên\ pl. n. : synonymous with Abhalljin
[origin unknown]
Arbol
\’ar · bôl\ pl. n. : the name given to the Sun; meaning unknown
gen. Eribol \’er · ê · bôl\
[origin unknown]
*Arbol-ef-Cordi
\’ar · bôl  ’ef  ’cô · dê\ pl. n. : “Fields of Arbol”, the Solar System
gen. Eribol-ef-Cordi \’er · ê · bô  ’ef  ’côr · dê\
[Old Solar Arbol + ef + *cerd]
Ask
\’ask\ per. n. : a name given to the King of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Balki
\’bal · kê\ pl. n. : a lake on Malacandra; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Baru
\’ba · ru\ per. n. : a name given to the King of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Baru’ah
\’ba · ru · ah\ per. n. : a name given to the Queen of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[Old Solar Baru + *ah]
Embla
\’emb · la\ per. n. : a name given to the Queen of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Glund
\’glund\ pl. n. : a short form of Glundandra
[origin unknown]
Glundandra
\’glund · and · ra\ per. n. : name given to the planet Jupiter and its oyarsa; means “*glund planet”
[Old Solar *glund + handra]
Glund-Oyarsa
\’glund  ’ô · yar · sa\ per. n. : a name for the oyarsa of Glundandra
[Old Solar glund + oyarsa]
Hlab-Eribol-ef-Cordi
\’h · lab  ’er · ê · bôl  ’ef  ’côr · dê\ lang. n. : “language of the Fields of Arbol”, Old Solar’s name for itself
[Old Solar hlab + Arbol + ef + *cerd]
Hleri
\’h · le · rê\ per. n. : name of a female hross; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hlithnahi
\’h · lêþ · na · hê\ per. n. : name of a hross of unknown gender; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hnihi
\’h · nê · hê\ per. n. : name of a hross of unknown gender; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hnoh
\’h · nô · h\ per. n. : name of a hross of unknown gender; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hnohra
\’h · nô · h · ra\ per. n. : name of a male hross; meaning unknown
[contains Old Solar *ra?]
Hnoo
\’h · nô · ô\7 per. n. : name of a hross of unknown gender; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hressa-Hlab
\’h · res · a  ’h · lab\ lang. n. : “hrossian language”, an erroneous name for Old Solar
[Old Solar hross + hlab]
Hrikki
\’h · rêk · kê\ per. n. : name of a female hross; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hrinha
\’h · rên · ha\ per. n. : name of a hross of unknown gender; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hyahi
\’h · ya · hê\ per. n. : name of a male hross; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Hyoi
\’h · yoi\ per. n. : name of a male hross; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Lur
\’lur\ pl. n. : the sea of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Lurga
\’lur · ga\ pl. n. : the name given to the planet Saturn and its oyarsa; possibly the long form of *Lurgandra
[Old Solar *lurga]
*Lurgandra
\’lur · gand · ra\ pl. n. : possibly the full name of the planet Saturn and its oyarsa
[Old Solar *lurga + handra]
Malacandra
\’ma · lac · and · ra\ pl. n. : the name given to the planet Mars and its oyarsa; means “*malac planet”
[Old Solar *malac + handra]
Maleldil
\’mal · el · dêl\ per. n. : Old Solar name for Jesus Christ, second Person of the Trinity; meaning unknown, possibly “lord of the eldila” or similar8
[possibly Old Solar *mal + eldil]
Meldilorn
\’mel · dêl · ôrn\ pl. n. : the dwelling-place of the oyarsa of Malacandra9; actual meaning unknown
[possibly Old Solar *m + eldil + *orn]
Neruval
\’ner · uv · al\ pl. n. : the name given to a planet, presumably either Uranus or Neptune10; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Numinor11
\’nu · mê · nôr\ pl. n. : Atlantis; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Oyarsa-Perelendri
\’ô · yar · sa  ’per · el · end · rê\ per. n. : title given to the King and Queen of Perelandra; possibly means “Perelandrian oyéresu”
[Old Solar Perelandra + oyarsa]
Perelandra
\’per · el · and · ra\ pl. n. the name given to the planet Venus and its oyarsa; means “*perel planet”
gen. *Perelendra \’per · el · end · ra\, pl. Perelendri \··· rê\
[Old Solar *perel + handra]
Sulva
\’sul · va\ pl. n. : name given to the Earth’s moon; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Tai Harendrimar
\’tî  ’har · en · drê · mar\ pl. n. : “Hill of Life”; a mountain on Perelandra
[Old Solar tai + harandramar]
Thulcandra
\’þulc · and · ra\ pl. n. : the name given to the planet Earth and its oyarsa; means “silent planet”
[Old Solar thulc + handra]
Tinidril
\’tên · ê · drêl\ per. n. : a name given to the Queen of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Tor
\’tôr\ per. n. : a name given to the King of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Viritrilbia12
\’vê · rêl · trêl · bê · a\ pl. n. : the name given to the planet Mercury and its oyarsa; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Whin
\’hwên\ per. n. : name of a male hross; meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Yatsur
\’yat · sur\ per. n. : a name given to the King of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[origin unknown]
Yatsurah
\’yat · sur · ah\ per. n. : a name given to the Queen of Perelandra; actual meaning unknown
[Old Solar Yatsur + *ah]

Corrupted Words

This is a short list of words, some of which fairly common, which are not “real” Old Solar, but are instead mixes of Old Solar and English elements.

eldilic
\’el · dêl · ik\ adj. : adjective form of eldil
[Anglicization]
handramits
\’han · dra · mêtz\ n. : *handramita
[Anglicization]
hrossian
\’h · rôs · ê · an\ adj. : hressa
[Anglicization]
Malacandrian
\’ma · lac · and · rê · an\ adj. : adjective form of Malacandra
[Anglicization]
Perelandrian
\’per · el · and · rê · an\ adj. : adjective form of Perelandra
[Anglicization]

1 – please see the Guide to Pronunciation; also note that the placement of the primary stress and the division into syllables is hypothetical.
2 – see Old Solar pronunciation for the matter of the letter c
3 – surely it is coincidental that this could, I think, be interpreted in Quenya as “one who loves a particular star”, refering to the eldila's guardianship of particular planets (‘stars’ in ancient thought)?
4 – the second definition seems implied by, when he is teaching Ransom his first few words of Old Solar, Hyoi’s picking up a handful of dirt and saying “handra” (osp, ch. 9, para. 18)
5 – it would appear that initial h preceeding a consonant forms its own syllable; see, “it [a sorn] spoke differently from the from the hrossa, without any suggestion of their persistant initial H” (osp, ch. 15, para. 17).
6 – this word might actually be *me, with the e disappearing in the word Meldilorn through haplology.
7 – see Old Solar pronunciation for the matter of oo.
8 – similar to footnote 3, this word could (I think), in Quenya, be interpreted as “One who loves the eldil(a)”.
9   although it may not refer exclusively to this: see “He [Glundandra] is ‘the centre’, ‘great Meldilorn’....” (osp, ps, para. 10).
10 – we might guess that the name also refers to the oyarsa of this planet, although no such oyarsa is ever mentioned.
11 – it is possible (perhaps even likely) that this is, in actuality, the way a group of people who don’t speak Quenya spell the Quenya Númenor.
12 – it is not clear whether Viritrilbia has a handra-form like the other planets, possibly *Viritrilbiandra.

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